A model-based study of internal energy balance in
electric vehicles (E-MoBilanz)



Market acceptance of electric vehicles is mainly – in comparison with conventional combustion engine driven vehicles – determined by their driving distance, safety and comfort. The battery system and its restricted capacity to store energy currently pose a main limiting factor for the further out-scaling of electric vehicles. Important factors are price, weight and installation space. Meanwhile, a substantial amount of energy in electric vehicles is consumed when operating comfort functions such as air conditioning or electrically adjustable systems as for instance window controls. This may in turn reduce the driving distance of the electric vehicles.

It is therefore very important to ensure that all devices of electric vehicles are optimized in relation to their thermal and energy behavior. The challenge is basically that single components may be built into the electric cars based on individual assessments of functionality and energy optimization, although their use will imply that an imbalance between energy supply and energy use is created for the overall system in certain driving situations.

In order to describe this problem in more details it is desirable to be able to simulate internal energy balance of electric vehicles considering the energy use of all components and with application of the vehicle under different scenarios. This is possible independently of the presence of a physical vehicle through construction of a mathematical simulation model enabling test of different scenarios of electric vehicle composition and use. Building such a simulation model is an appropriate approach for assessing required specifications of components before any hardware devices are available. The simulation calculations resulting from the model will therefore provide an important basis for new insights regarding the frame conditions for development of new products that can be developed to the electro mobility markets by regional business enterprises.


Objectives and results:

On this background the E-MoBilanz working package will develop the structure for a realistic electric vehicle simulation model, including definition of mission profiles describing different real-life driving situations. The overall objective is to be able to describe the internal electric vehicle energy balance considering all devices acting as energy users or accumulators as well as their interactions. In this manner the E-MoBilanz model will be able to simulate energy use and interactions of all electric vehicle devices in terms of their thermal and energy behavior, and under different driving scenarios. These can be heating during winter, cooling in summer, driving at night with light or use of infotainment devices.

Analyses of the E-MoBilanz simulation model will be able to support the regional industry in specifying products, and a close interaction will be maintained with other working packages of the eMOTION project, especially the work on micro-components by SDU-MCI.

The following more detailed results are expected from E-MoBilanz:

  1. For the industry partners in the region: product specifications for current and improvement suitable products as well as for future products produced by suppliers to the automotive industry producing electric vehicles

  2. For the university: interactions with students realizing project or thesis work, thereby helping to educate young academics in one of the most important upcoming fields for engineers
  3. For the network: provision of hard facts especially for the business oriented partners as well as well-prepared presentation documents which can be used in for instance exhibitions to explain the politicians and the society the advantages and challenges for future electro mobility


Responsible partner:

Fachhochschule Kiel (FH-Kiel)
Grenzstraße 5, 24149 Kiel

Prof. Dr. Klaus Lebert

+49 0431 210-2560